The Lesbian ancestors of
Prince Rainier of Monaco
Dr. Otto von Habsburg
Brooke Shields
and the Marquis de Sade
by William Addams Reitwiesner
Copyright © 1995 by William Addams Reitwiesner

Lesbian: Of or pertaining to the island of Lesbos in the northern part of the Grecian archipelago. -- O. E. D. 1


Morris L. Bierbrier, in his article on "Modern Descendants of Byzantine Families"2, mentions Maria Palaiologina, daughter of Andronikos II Palaiologos, Emperor of Byzantium, by his wife, Anne de Savoy. Maria married Francesco Gattilusio, Lord of Lesbos, and Mr. Bierbrier says that "there must be many of Maria's descendants now in Italy." There are, and there are many descendants not in Italy. This article will show that some well-known people are descendants of Maria. Though the descents below have been available for some time, the relative obscurity of some of the families through whom the descents go has impeded a thorough search. To the best of my knowledge, these particular descents have never before been published, though descents from Maria have been in print for at least forty years3.

Before I give the descents, I must give a few words about the Gattilusii of Lesbos4. In 1354, Francesco Gattilusio, a Genoese freebooter5, landed, with his band, on the island of Tenedos, and there discovered John V Palaiologos, the Emperor of Byzantium, who had been retired there after losing his throne to John VI Kantakuzene. Palaiologos and Gattilusio struck a deal whereby if Gattilusio would help Palaiologos regain the Byzantine throne, Gattilusio would be given Palaiologos's sister's hand in marriage. By means of a clever trick6, Gattilusio did just that, in Autumn of that year (1354). Palaiologos followed through on his end of the deal, married his sister Maria to Gattilusio, and gave him the island of Lesbos as her dowry. On 17 July 1355, Francesco I began his reign as Lord of Lesbos.

After an eventful reign of 29 years, Francesco, his wife Maria, and their two eldest sons, Andronico and Domenico, were killed by an earthquake on 6 Aug. 13847. A third son, Jacopo, miraculously survived the earthquake and was installed (under the regency of his uncle, Francesco's younger brother, Niccolo I Gattilusio, Lord of Ainos) as Lord of Lesbos with the name of Francesco II.

At his accession in 1384, Francesco II was extraordinarily well-connected, genealogically speaking, to many of the contemporary European rulers. He was a nephew of the Byzantine Emperor (still John V). Through his maternal grandmother, Anne de Savoy, he was a second cousin of Enguerrand de Coucy, the Earl of Bedford8, and a half-second cousin of Amadeo VII, the Count of Savoy. Through his matrilineal great-grandmother, Marie de Brabant, he was a third cousin of Wenzel, the King of Germany (later Holy Roman Emperor), and of Anne, the Queen of England. Charles VI, King of France, was a third cousin once removed. Francesco II also had an interesting set of ancestors, including the Palaiolog Emperors of Byzantium, the Arpad Kings of Hungary, the Lascaris Emperors of Nicaea, the Rupenid and Hethumid Kings of Armenia9, the Anjevin Kings of Jerusalem, King Stephen of the English, Frederick Barbarossa, and, through the Dampierre Counts of Flanders and the Counts of Champagne, Eleanor of Aquitaine10. Francesco II was also descended from a brother of Pope Innocent IV and from a sister of Pope Adrian V.

Francesco II died in the best slapstick/low comedy fashion11 on 26 Oct. 1404, leaving, by his unknown wife12, six children. The daughters were (1) Eugenia, d. 1440, m. Emperor John VII Palaiologos, and had no issue13; (2) Helene, m. Stephen Lazarevich, Despot of Serbia, and had no issue14; and (3) Caterina, m. Pietro Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil, and had issue15. The sons were (4) Jacopo, his father's successor as Lord of Lesbos, m. Valentina Doria and left no issue when he died ca. 142816; (5) Dorino I, Jacopo's successor as Lord of Lesbos, and (6) Palamede, who succeeded his unmarried great uncle, Nicolo I, as Lord of Ainos in 1409.

Dorino I Gattilusio, Lord of Lesbos, married Orietta Doria and had six children: (a) Francesco III, Lord of Thasos, married a daughter of Palamede and died v.p. and s.p. six months later17; (b) Domenico, married Maria Giustiniani-Longo and had no issue; (c) Niccolo, who died without issue; (d) Ginevra, m. 1444, Jacopo II Crispo, Duke of the Archipelago, and had issue18; (e) Caterina, m. 27 July 1441, Constantinos XI Palaiologos, then Despot of Morea, and d. July 1442, without issue19; and (f) Maria, married Alexandros Komnenoi, Emperor of Trebizond, and had issue20.

Palamede Gattilusio, Lord of Ainos, died in 1455, having had, by his wife21, six children, (i) Giorgio, d. v.p. in 1449, leaving issue22; (ii) Dorino II, his father's successor at Ainos, from which he was absent (on vacation) when the Turks invaded in Jan. 1456, m. his cousin, Elisabetta, dau. of Jacopo II Crispo by Ginevra Gattilusio, above, but had no issue; (iii) Caterina, married Marino Doria and may have had issue; (iv) Ginevra, married Lodovico Fregoso, Doge of Genoa, and had issue23, (v) Costanza, married Lodovico's first cousin, Giangaleazzo Fregoso (whose Will was dated 3 May 1484), and had issue24, and (vi) a daughter, who married her first cousin, Francesco III, above, and had no issue25.

To finish up the story of the Lordship of Lesbos, Dorino I, though then an invalid, was still Lord when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. He died on 30 June 1455, leaving Lesbos to his elder surviving son, Domenico, who was overthrown and strangled in 1458 by the younger son, Niccolo26. The Turks continued their acquiring spree, and, in early September 1462, the Turkish fleet, under the command of Admiral Mahmud Pasha and the Turkish land forces under the personal command of Sultan Mohammed II, besieged Mytilene, the Lesbian capital. Though Mytilene had enough provisions to withstand a year's siege, it had nobody competent to command such a defense. After the Turkish guns pounded flat much of the city, the Lesbians surrendered. The Turks entered the city, and, with acts of appalling viciousness27, slaughtered many of the inhabitants, and transported the most important Lesbians to Istanbul (formerly Constantinople). Niccolo Gattilusio, formerly Lord of Lesbos, was strangled there in the same way he had strangled his own brother, and Lesbos remained Turkish until 1912.

There was only one legitimate28 male Gattilusio who survived the Turkish conquests, and, in 1488, Dorino II Gattilusio, formerly Lord of Ainos, granted to his brother-in-law, Marino Doria, all of the Gattilusii rights in the Levant. I have been unable to determine whether Marino had any issue29, and so the de jure heir of the Gattilusii of Lesbos is unknown.


The lines of modern descendants of the Lesbian Gattilusii I will trace start, of course, with

              1.     Francesco I Gattilusio, Lord of Lesbos, d. 1384, m. 1355 Maria Palaiologina, d. 1384.
2. Francesco II Gattilusio, Lord of Lesbos, d. 1404, m. NN
3. Palamede Gattilusio, Lord of Ainos, d. 1455, m. NN
4. Ginevra Gattilusio, m. Lodovico Fregoso, Doge of Genoa. Her Will was dated 3 May 1489, and by her husband, who died in 1490, she had three children who married: (a) Leonarda, m. Scipione, marchese d'Este, and had issue which became extinct in 156730; (b) Battistina, m. 1461 Ambrogio Contrari (who died 28 Apr. 1493), and had descendants traceable to the present31; and
5. Agostino Fregoso, d. v.p. and v.m. in 1487, having m. Gentile di Montefeltro32, by whom he had eight children, including (a) Ottaviano, Doge of Genoa, whose illegitimate son had descendants traceable to at least 1826; (b) Federico, a Cardinal, (c) Bettina, m. her cousin, Honore Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil, and had issue which will be treated below, and
6. Costanza Fregoso, m. Marcantonio Landi33, and had, among others,
7. Agostino Landi, created, 25 May 1551, Prince of Valditarro, and d. 13 March 1555, having married Julia Landi, a cousin, and had, among others, a younger son
8. Claudio Landi, who succeeded, his elder brother, Manfred (who had d. s.p.) as 3rd Prince of Valditarro, and married Manfred's widow, Juana Fernandez de Cordova. By her he had, among others34, a daughter
9. Maria Landi, m. 1595 Hercule I Grimaldi, Lord of Monaco, murdered 160435, and had, among others, an oldest son and heir,
10. Honore II Grimaldi, Lord of Monaco (1597-1662), raised under the tutelage of his uncle, Federigo Landi, Prince of Valditarro. Federigo had his nephew raised, in 1612, to the title of Prince and Lord of Monaco. Honore II m. 1616 Ippolita Trivulzio, who d. 163836, and had, among others,
11. Hercule Grimaldi, Hereditary Prince of Monaco (1623-1651), m. 1641 Aurelia Spinola, d. 1670, and had, among others, daughters named Therese Maria and Pellina, whose issue will be treated below; and
12. Louis I Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1642-1701), m. 1660 Catherine Charlotte de Gramont (1639-1670)37, and had, among others, an elder son
13. Antoine I Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1661-1731), m. 1688 Marie de Lorraine d'Armagnac (1674-1724)38, and had, among others, an eldest daughter and heiress
14. Louise Hippolyte Grimaldi, Sovereign Princess of Monaco (1697-1731), m. 1715 Jacques Goyon de Matignon, Duc d'Estouteville (1689-1751)39. At their marriage, Jacques changed his surname to Grimaldi, and, in 1731, succeeded his wife as Jacques I, Sovereign Prince of Monaco. Jacques I abdicated, 1733, in favor of their oldest surviving son,
15. Honore III Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1720-1795), m. 1757 separated 1770, as her first husband40, Catherine Brignole-Sale (1737-1818). Honore III and Catherine had two sons, the younger of whom, Joseph, married and had issue41. The elder son was
16. Honore IV Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1758-1819), m. 1777 and div. 1793 Louise d'Aumont, Duchesse de Mazarin et de Meilleraye (1759-1826)42, and had two sons. The elder son, Honore V Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1778-1841), never married43, and was succeeded by his brother
17. Florestan I Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1785-1856), m. 1816 Caroline Gibert (1793-1879)44, and had two children, a son and a daughter. The daughter, Florestine, married the Duke of Urach45, and the son was
18. Charles III Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1818-1889), m. 1846 Antoinette, comtesse de Merode (1828-1864)46, and had one child
19. Albert I Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1848-1922), m. (1) 1869, annulled and divorced 1880, Lady Mary Douglas-Hamilton (1850-1922)47, and m. (2) 1889, separated 1902, Alice Heine (1858-1925)48. Prince Albert's only child was by his first wife, and his name was
20. Louis II Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (1870-1949), m. 1946 Ghislaine Dommanget (1900-1991). By her he had no issue. While serving in the French Army in Algeria, Louis had an illegitimate dau. by a Mme. Delmaet (nee Louvet49), named
21. Charlotte Louvet (1898-1977), legitimated, given the surname of Grimaldi, and the title of Duchesse de Valentinois by ordinance of Prince Albert I in 1919, was recognized as Hereditary Princess of Monaco at her grandfather's death in 192250. She m. 1920, separated 1930 and div. 1933, Comte Pierre de Polignac (1895-1964)51. At their marriage, Pierre was granted the surname Grimaldi and the title "Prince de Monaco". They had two children, a daughter named Antoinette, now Baronne de Massy52, and a son named Rainier. Charlotte renounced, in 1944, her rights of succession to the Principality of Monaco in favor of the son, who thus, at his grandfather's death, became
22. Rainier III Grimaldi, Sovereign Prince of Monaco, b. 1923, m. 1956 Grace Patricia Kelly (1929-1982)53, and has three children. Prince Rainier of Monaco is thus a 22nd generation descendant of Francesco I Gattilusio, founder of the Lesbian Gattilusii dynasty.


The next line of descent I will trace is through one of the daughters of Hercule Grimaldi, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, generation 11, above. That daughter,

              12.     Therese Maria Grimaldi (1646-1723), m. 1671 Sigismondo d'Este, Marchese di San Martini (1647-1732)54, and had, among others55,
13. Matilde d'Este (1675-1743), m. 1695 Camillo II di Gonzaga, Conte di Novellara (1649-1727)56, and had, among others (who left no issue), a daughter and heiress
14. Ricciarda Gonzaga (1698-1768), m. 1715 Alderano Cibo, Duca di Massa (1690-1731)57, and had an only child,
15. Maria Teresia Cibo (1721-1790), m. 1741 Ercole III d'Este, Duca di Modena (1727-1823)58 and had an only child,
16. Maria Beatrice d'Este (1750-1829), m. 1771 Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Modena (1754-1806), and had, among others59,
17. Maria Theresia di Modena (1773-1832), m. 1789 Vittorio Emmanuele I, King of Sardinia (1759-1824), and had, among others,
18. Maria Teresia di Savoja (1803-1879), m. 1820 Carlo II, Duke of Parma (1799-1883). Their only child who married was
19. Carlo III, Duke of Parma (1823-1854), m. 1845 Louise Marie de Bourbon (1819-1864), and had, among others60,
20. Roberto I, Duke of Parma (1848-1907), m. (1) 1869 Maria Pia di Borbone-Sicilia (1849-1882), and m. (2) 1884 Maria Antonia de Braganca (1862-1959). Roberto had a total of 24 children by both of his wives61. One of the children by the second wife was
21. Zita, Principessa di Borbone-Parma (1892-1989), m. 1911 Karl, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (1887-1922). Their first child was
22. Otto, Crown Prince of Austria, b. 1912, now Dr. Otto von Habsburg of Pöcking, Bavaria, a 22nd generation descendant of Francesco I Gattilusio, founder of the Lesbian Gattilusii dynasty.


The next line of descent I will trace62 is through another daughter of Hercule Grimaldi, Hereditary Prince of Monaco, generation 11, above. That daughter,

              12.     Pellina Grimaldi (1651-1724), m. (1) 1668 Andrea Imperiali, 2. principe di Francavilla (1647-1678)63 and had, among others,
13. Aurelia Imperiali (1678-1770), m. 1699 Fabrizio Carafa, 10. duca di Andria (1673-1707)64 and had several children. The only child who married was
14. Don Ettore Carafa, 11. duca di Andria (1701-1764), m. 1726 Francisca Guevara (1710-1795) and had, among others,
15. Donna Eleonore Carafa (1728-1765), m. 1743 Don Giovanni Andrea Doria-Pamphili-Landi, 1. principe di Torriglia (1704-1764)65, and had, among others,
16. Don Giovanni Andrea Doria-Pamphili-Landi, 2. principe di Torriglia (1744-1820), m. 1767 Donna Leopolda di Savoja (1744-1807)66 and had, among others,
17. Don Giovanni Andrea Doria-Pamphili-Landi, 3. principe di Torriglia (1779-1838), m. 1808 Donna Teresia Orsini (1788-1829), and had, among others,
18. Donna Leopoldina Doria-Pamphilj-Landi (1811-1843), m. Don Sigismondo Chigi-Albani, 6. principe di Farnese (1798-1877)67, and had, among others,
19. Donna Teresa Chigi-Albani (1831-1884), m. 1850 Don Giulio Torlonia, 2. duca di Poli e di Guadagnolo (1824-1871)68, and had, among others,
20. Don Marino Torlonia, 4. principe di Civitella-Cesi (1861-1933), m. 1907 Elsie Moore (1889-1941)69, and had, among others70,
21. Donna Marina Torlonia (1916-1960), m. (1) 1940, div. 1951, Francis X. Shields, the tennis player (1909-1975)71, and had
22. Francis Alexander Shields, b. 1941, m. (1) Jan. 1965, div. 1965, Maria Theresia Schmonin, b. ca. 1934, and had
23. Brooke Shields, b. 31 May 1965, the model and actress, a 23rd generation descendant of Francesco I Gattilusio, the founder of the Lesbian Gattilusii dynasty.


Another child of Francesco II Gattilusio, Lord of Lesbos, generation 2, above, was

              3.     Caterina Gattilusio, m. Pietro Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil72. Their son,
4. Jacques Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil, d. 149173, m. Caterina Caretto, and had, among others74,
5. Honore Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil, whose Will was dated 152375, m. (his cousin) Bettina Fregoso, daughter of Agostino Fregoso, generation 5, above. Honore and Bettina had, among others,
6. Rene Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil76, married Thomasine Lascaris, and had, among others,
7. Honore Grimaldi, Baron de Bueil77, married Julia Picamilli, and had, among others,
8. Vittoria Grimaldi, married Joachim de Simiane, Seigneur de Chateauneuf, d. 160578, and had, among others,
9. Anne de Simiane, m. 1601 Francois de Simiane, Seigneur de la Coste, liv. 161579, and had, among others,
10. Diane de Simiane80, m. Jean Baptiste de Sade, Seigneur de Saumare81, and had, among others82,
11. Cosme de Sade, Seigneur de Saumare83, m. 1669 Elisabeth de Nogaret, and had, among others,
12. Gaspard Francois de Sade, Marquis de Sade, d. 173984, m. 1699 Louise d'Astouaud, and had, among others85,
13. Jean Baptiste de Sade, Comte de Sade, (1702-1767)86, French ambassador to Cologne, St. Petersburg and London, m. 1733 Marie Eleonore de Maille (1712-1777)87, and had an only surviving child
14. Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, Marquis de Sade, b. at the Hotel de Conde, Paris, 2 June 1740, d. at the Charenton Asylum for the Insane, Paris, 2 Dec. 1814, author of Justine, Juliette, 120 Days of Sodom, etc., the man after whom, from of his behavior and writings, the words "Sadistic" and "Sadism" were coined88, and a 14th generation descendant of Francesco I Gattilusio, founder of the Lesbian Gattilusii dynasty.


A further examination would show many other persons with Lesbian ancestry. The descents given above suggest avenues for further exploration.


Note 1:   A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, ed. by Sir James A. H. Murray and others (commonly called the Oxford English Dictionary), vol. VI, part 1 [Oxford: Clarendon, 1908], p. 207. The current use of the word "Lesbian", to denote a particular sexual orientation or activity, first appears in print in 1870. See A Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary, ed. by R. W. Birchfield, vol. II [Oxford: Clarendon, 1976], p. 645.

Note 2:   In The Genealogists' Magazine, vol. 20, no. 3 (Sept. 1980), pp. 85-96 (cols. 169-192), in particular, p. 92 (col. 184).

Note 3:   The earliest I have found is in Jean Camille Tremblot ["La Banniere"], Soixante-Quatre quartiers [Paris: C. & F. Roux-Devillas, 1951], p. 151, though this descent is incorrect in some details. See infra.

Note 4:   See William Miller, "The Gattilusj of Lesbos", in Byzantinische Zeitschrift, Bd. 22 (1913), S. 406-447.

Note 5:   Miller doesn't give Francesco's parents. Charles Hopf, Chroniques Greco-Romanes (Berlin: Weidmann, 1873), p. 502, says that Francesco was a son of Domenico Gattilusio and Soffredina. Since so much of what Hopf says about the Gattilusii is incorrect, this should be accepted only with caution.

Note 6:   At night, Gattilusio had his sailors wake the sleeping sentries, and shout (from the ships) that one of their ships had wrecked and that they (the sailors) would share the remains of the cargo with whoever would help them. "At this appeal to their love of gain the guards opened the gate". Some 500 of Gattilusio's band entered and killed the sentries. Gattilusio and his band then ran along the wall shouting "Long live the Emperor John Palaiologos", waking the populace. The demonstrations in Palaiologos's favor convinced Cantacuzene that resistance would be futile, and retired to a monastery. Palaiologos, Gattilusio, and the rest of the Italians, marched in triumph into the palace. Miller, S. 407-408.

Note 7:   Miller, S. 411-412.

Note 8:   This was of great help to de Coucy at one point. See Miller, S. 413.

Note 9:   See Cyrille Toumanoff, Manuel de Genealogie et de Chronologie pour l'histoire de la Caucasie Chretienne [Roma: Edizioni Aquila, 1976], p. 285, and Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides, and Lusignans [Paris: Klincksieck, 1963], Table III (H2), for the identity and ancestry of Rita/Maria/Xenia, the wife of Emperor Michael IX. She is unidentified in Averkios Th. Papadopulos, Versuch einer Genealogie der Palaiologen 1259-1453 [Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1962], S. 36.

Note 10:   Eleanor's paternal grandfather, William IX of Aquitaine and VII of Poitou (d. 1127), is the subject of an article by James Lea Cate in Byzantion, vol. XVI, fasc. 2 (1942-1943), pp. 503-526, titled, unfortunately, "A Gay Crusader".

Note 11:   "On a journey through [Lesbos], while passing the night in one of the lofty towers then common in the Archipelago, he was stung by a scorpion. Alarmed at his cries, his attendants and nobles climbed up into his room in such numbers that the floor collapsed and he was killed on the spot ... ." Miller, S. 417.

Note 12:   "A noble dame of gentle breeding and European accomplishments, acquired at the court of Marie de Bourbon, titular Empress of Constantinople and Princess of Achaia, in whose society she had been educated." Miller, S. 414.

Note 13:   Papadopulos, S. 53-54.

Note 14:   Aleksa Ivic, Rodoslovne Tablice srpskih dinastija i vlastene, Knije Matice Srpske, Br. 49 [Novi Sad: Izdanje Matice Srpske, 1928], Broj 5; and Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln, Band III, Teilband 1 [Marburg: Stargardt, 1984], Tafel 188.

Note 15:   P. Anselme (and others), Histoire Genealogique et Chronologique de la Maison Royale de France [reprinted New York: Johnson, 1967], tome IV, p. 501; La Chesnaye-Desbois (and others), Dictionnaire de la Noblesse, Troisieme Edition, tome 9 [Paris: Schlesinger, 1866], col. 846. Pietro's wife is not named in either of these, but see Miller, S. 419. See infra for some of their descendants.

Note 16:   Miller, S. 419.

Note 17:   Miller, S. 426.

Note 18:   Miller, S. 425 and 432; Hopf, p. 481.

Note 19:   He succeeded, 31 Oct. 1448, to the Byzantine throne, and died defending it on 29 May 1453, the last Emperor of the East.

Note 20:   After the conquest of Lesbos, she entered the seraglio of Sultan Mohammed II. See A. D. Alderson, The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty [Oxford: Clarendon, 1956], Table XXVII. Miller, S. 442, says that her only son, Alexios, became one of the Sultan's favorite pages, but Schwennicke, Band II [Marburg: Stargardt, 1984], Tafel 176, says that Alexios was beheaded in Istanbul on 1 Nov. 1462 (about a month after the Lesbian conquest), aged 8 years.

Note 21:   Miller doesn't name Palamede's wife, but Hopf, p. 502, calls her "Valentina ...., laquelle, remariee au marquis Giorgio del Carretto".

Note 22:   Miller, S. 431.

Note 23:   Conte Pompeo Litta, Famigilie Celebri Italiane [Milano: Ferrario, 1820-1856], Fregoso, tav. VI.

Note 24:   Litta, Fregoso, tav. IV.

Note 25:   Miller, S. 426.

Note 26:   Miller, S. 435-436.

Note 27:   " ... two envoys were sent to inform [Admiral] Mahmud that inhabitants were ready to become his master's vassals, if their heads and remaining property were guaranteed. The Turkish commander drew up a memorandum of the terms in writing, and swore by his girded sword and his sovereign's head that no harm should befall them. ... The conquerors celebrated their success by a Bacchanalian orgie ... while the Sultan ... bade saw asunder with exquisite cruelty some 300 of the [residents] as pirates in one of the suburbs. Thus, it was said, he had literally carried out their conditions, that their heads should be spared." Miller, S. 441.

Note 28:   Francesco II had an illegitimate son, Giorgio, whose grandson, Giuliano Gattilusio, was the famous pirate. See Miller, S. 438 and 444-445.

Note 29:   I am unable to locate him in the Doria article in Natale Battilana, Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili di Genova [reprinted Bologna: Forni, 1971].

Note 30:   Litta, Este, tav. XI.

Note 31:   Litta, Contrari, tav. I. For some of their descendants, see the following tables in Litta: Rangoni, tav. IV; Bevilacqua, tav. V; Roverella, tav. II; Fogliana, tav. IV; and Pio, tav. IV.

Note 32:   She was a bastard daughter of Federico di Montefeltro, Duca d'Urbino. See Litta, Montefeltro, tav. III. Her (legitimate) half-sister, Giovanna, was the heiress of the Montefeltros and married Giovanni della Rovere.

Note 33:   See Schullern, "Das reichfürstliche Geschlecht der Landi in Piacenza", in Monatsblatt der Heraldischen Gesellschaft "Adler", X Bd. nr. 27-28 (März-April 1928).

Note 34:   The son, Federigo, 4th and last Prince of Valditarro, had an only surviving child, Polissena, who married Giovanni Andrea Doria. See Battilana, Doria, tab. 30. Their descendants include the Princes of Doria-Landi and (later) Doria-Pamphili-Landi. See infra.

Note 35:   Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 201, and Battilana, Grimaldi, tab. 19.

Note 36:   Schwennicke, Band IX [Marburg: Stargardt, 1987], Tafel 153.

Note 37:   Schwennicke, Band X [Marburg: Stargardt, 1986], Tafel 73.

Note 38:   Schwennicke, Band VI [Marburg: Stargardt, 1978], Tafel 135.

Note 39:   Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 202. He was the oldest son and heir of:

           a        Jacques de Goyon, Sire de Matignon (1644-1725) by his wife (m. 1675) Charlotte de Matignon (1657-1721) [Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 202 and Anselme, Tome V, page 390]. Charlotte was oldest married daughter and [because all her brothers died v.p. and unmarried] heir of:
b Henry de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny (1633-1682) and his wife (m. 1648) Marie Francoise Le Tellier [Anselme, tome V, page 388]. Henry was the oldest son and heir of:
c Francois de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny (1607-1675) and his wife (m. 1631) Anne Malon de Bercy (-1688) [Anselme, tome V, page 387]. Francois was the fourth and youngest son and [because his older brothers died sp. by 1680] in his issue heir of:
d Charles de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny (1564-1648) and his wife (m. 1596) Eleonore de Orleans-Longueville [Anselme, tome V, page 386]. Eleonore was a daughter, apparently the older [in any case the descendants of the other daughter appear to have died out in 1794], and [because the descendants of her brothers died out in 1707] in her issue heir of:
e Leonor d'Orleans, Duc de Longueville (1540-1573) and his wife (m. 1563) Marie de Bourbon (1539-1601) [Schwennicke, Band III, Teilband 2 (Marburg: Stargardt, 1983), Tafel 310]. Leonor was the oldest son and heir of:
f Francois d'Orleans (1513-1548) and his wife (m. 1536) Jacqueline de Rohan (1520-1587) [Schwennicke, Band III, Teilband 2, Tafel 310]. Francois was the second son [descendants of the first son died out in 1551] and in his issue heir of:
g Louis d'Orleans, Comte de Longueville (-1516) and his wife (m. 1504) Johanna von Baden-Hochburg (-1543) [Schwennicke, Band III, Teilband 2, Tafel 310]. Johanna was the only surviving child and heir of:
h Philipp, Markgraf von Baden-Hochberg (1452-1503) and his wife (m. 1476) Marie of Savoy [Schwennicke, Band I (Marburg: Stargardt, 1980), Tafel 135]. Marie was a daughter, of uncertain seniority [the other daughter who had issue was Anne, Queen of Naples, whose heir is Jean Charles, Prince de Ligne de La Tremoille, b. 1911], and [because descendants of her brothers died out in 1499] apparently in her issue heir of:
i Amadeo IX, Duca di Savoja (1435-1472) and his wife (m. 1452) Yolanda de France (1434-1478) [Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 194]. Amadeo was the older son and heir of:
j Luigi, Duca di Savoja (1402-1465) and his wife (m. 1433) Anne de Lusignan (1415-1462) [Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 194]. Anne was the daughter and [because legitimate descendants of her brother died out in 1487] in her issue heir of:
k Janus I, King of Cyprus, Jerusalem, and Armenia (1374-1432) and his wife (m. 1411) Charlotte de Bourbon (1388-1422) [Schwennicke, Band III, Teilband 3 (Marburg: Stargardt, 1985), Tafel 566].

In other words, the heir of the Lusignans of Cyprus apparently goes through the Grimaldi Princes of Monaco to Louis, Sovereign Prince of Monaco (d. 1949, see infra).

Note 40:   After her husband died, she married the Prince de Conde. Through him, she became the step-grandmother of the Duc d'Enghien.

Note 41:  

           (a)     Joseph Grimaldi, Administrator of the Principality of Monaco (1763-1816), m. (1) 1782 Francoise de Choiseul (1766-1794), a great-great-granddaughter of James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick. See Alain Galbrun, Les Fitz-James [Douai: Nord-Publicite, 1972], p. 49. Their only child who had issue was
(b) Honorine Grimaldi (1784-1879), m. 1803 Rene, Marquis de la Tour du Pin (1779-1832). Their only child who married was
(c) Josephine de la Tour du Pin (1805-1865), m. 1826 Jules Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan (1796-1863). Their only child who married was
(d) Fortune Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan (1828-1900), m. 1864 Anne, Princesse de Croy (1831-1887). See A. C. Addington, The Royal House of Stuart, vol. 1 [London: Skilton, 1969], p. 173. Their only child who married was
(e) Aynard Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan, Marquis de Chabrillan (1869-1950), claimed the Principality of Monaco in 1949 (see infra), m. 1893 Felicite de Levis-Mirepoix (1874-1948). Their only child who had issue was
(f) Anne-Marie Guigues de Moreton de Chabrillan (1894-1983), m. 1919 Comte Armand de Caumont la Force (1881-1950). Their older son and heir was
(g) Comte Jean de Caumont la Force (1920-1986), m. 1948 Elisabeth de Castellane, b. 1928 a great-granddaughter of Jay Gould, the industrialist. See Comte Philippe de Chastellux, Essai genealogique sur la descendance de Cesar Philippe, comte de Chastellux [Neuilly: Chastellux, 1982], pp. 103-106. See also Harry Wright Newman, Mareen Duvall of Middle Plantation [Washington: Newman, 1950], p. 338. Comtesse de Caumont la Force was recently living at 3 rue Maspero, F-75116 Paris. Their oldest son and heir is
(h) Comte Olivier de Caumont la Force, b. 1949.

Note 42:   The Duchesse de Mazarin et de Meilleraye, holder of many other titles as well, gave birth in 1794, shortly after her divorce from Honore IV, to an illegitimate daughter, Eurodore d'Aumont. Later the Duchesse m. (2) 1801, div. 1803, Rene-Francois Tirand des Arcis; m. (3) a notary named Maine; m. (4) an elderly procurer; and m. (5) a master-clerk, and died in 1826. Eurodore married Louis-Pierre, Baron Musnier de Mauroy (see infra) and had three children. See Baron de Woelmont de Brumagne, Notices Genealogiques, Premiere Serie [Paris: Champion, 1923], pp. 25-26; and A. Reverend, Titres, Anoblissements et Pairies de la Restauration 1814-1830 [reprinted Paris: Champion, 1974], Tome 1, page 72, and Tome 5, page 227.

Note 43:   Honore V had an illegitimate son, Louis Grimaldi, Marquis des Baux (1814-1894), who died unmarried.

Note 44:   She was a daughter of Marie-Francoise-Henriette Le Gras de Vaubercy (1766-1842), by her second husband, Charles-Thomas Gibert (b. 1765, d. ?, m. 1792, div. 1796). By her first husband, Augustin-Louis Musnier de Mauroy (m. 1784, d. 1789), Mme. Gibert had had one son, Louis-Pierre, who married Eurodore d'Aumont (see supra). See l'Intermediaire des Chercheurs et Curieux, Sept. 1956, col. 665-666, and L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome VI [Le Perreux-sur-Marne: Giraud, 1991], pp. 482-483. Caroline Gibert was a dancer, and her husband, Florestan I, Sovereign Prince of Monaco, had been an actor in the Theatre de l'Ambigu-Comique.

Note 45:  

           (a)     Florestine Grimaldi de Monaco (1833-1897), m. 1863 (as his second wife) Wilhelm, Graf von Württemberg, created (1867) Herzog von Urach (1810-1869), a first cousin of Nikolai I, Emperor of Russia. Their elder son,
(b) Wilhelm, 2. Herzog von Urach (1864-1928), m. (1) 1892 Amalie Herzogin in Bayern (1865-1912), m. (2) 1924 Wiltrud Prinzessin von Bayern (1884-1975). Wilhelm "was offered the Crown of Lithuania by the Lithuanian Nat[ional] Assembly in July 1918 and announced his acceptance and intention of taking the name and style of Mindovg II, but the election was later declared 'inoperative' by the assembly in Nov 1918." See Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. II [London: Burke's, 1980], p. 306. Between August and October 1924, Wilhelm, his children, and his brother (in other words, all the descendants of Florestine, above) renounced their rights of succession to the Principality of Monaco in favor of Aynar, Marquis de Chabrillan (see supra). The eldest son of Wilhelm and Amalie was
(c) Wilhelm, Fürst von Urach (renounced his right of succession to the title of Herzog von Urach) (1897-1957), m. 1928 Elisabeth Theurer (1899-1988) They had two daughters, the younger of whom died unmarried in 1990. See L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome VI [Le Perreux-sur-Marne: Giraud, 1991], p. 272. The elder daughter is
(d) Elisabeth, Fürstin von Urach, b. 1932, recently (2001) living unmarried in Stuttgart and in München. The eventual heir of Florestine, Herzogin von Urach, above, is Patrick Guinness, b. 1956. See Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage 1995 [London: Debrett's, 1995], p. 916 [B Moyne, colls].

Note 46:   Schwennicke, Band VI, Tafel 76. Her niece was Queen of Spain from 1870 to 1873.

Note 47:   47. For one line of Lady Mary's American ancestry, through her great-grandfather William Beckford, the eccentric, see John Insley Coddington, "The Descent of the Duke of Montrose, the Prince of Monaco, and Princess Schwarzenberg from Rev. John Oxenbridge of Boston, Mass.", The American Genealogist, vol. 31 (1955), pp. 60-62.

Note 48:   She was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, a first cousin once removed of Heinrich Heine, the poet. See The Jewish Encyclopedia, vol. VI [New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1925], p. 326. Her first husband was Armand de Chapelle de Jumilhac, duc de Richelieu.

Note 49:   As the ancestry of Mme Delmaet is not widely known, it is given here, based on the work of Pierre Valle, of Pierreval:

              (1)      Marie Julie Louvet, b. Pierreval 19 May 1867, d. Paris XVI 29 Nov. 1930,  
m. Paris IX 6 Oct. 1885, div. 14 Jan. 1893,  
Achille Paul Leonore Delmaet, b. Paris 18 Apr. 1860.
(2) Jacques Henri Louvet, b. Pierreval 10 Sept. 1830, d. Rouen 7 Sept. 1910,  
m. (as his first wife) La Rue St. Pierre 3 Feb. 1852,
(3) Josephine Elmire Piedefer, b. La Rue St. Pierre 3 Sept. 1828, d. Pierreval 10 July 1871.
(4) Jacques Antoine Louvet, cultivateur, b. Pierreval 14 Aug. 1793, d. La Rue St. Pierre 19 March 1872,  
m. Bois Guillaume 18 Jan. 1825,
(5) Marie Catherine Emelie Jouanne, b. Fontaine le Bourg 2 complemantaire an X, d. La Rue St. Pierre 23 March 1889.
(6) Pierre Michel Isidore Valentin Piedefer, aubergiste, b. Quincampoire 29 ventose an VI, d. La Rue St. Pierre 1 Apr. 1875,  
m. Box-Bordel 28 Nov. 1821,
(7) Marie Anne Brunel, b. Roncherolles en Bray 16 Aug. 1793, d. La Rue St. Pierre 11 Nov. 1850.
(8) Jacques Antoine Louvet, cultivateur, b. Pierreval 20 Nov. 1773, d. Pierreval 9 Jan. 1828,  
m. Pierreval 17 June 1793,
(9) Madeleine Aimable Lepeuple, b. Pierreval 12 July 1774, d. Estouteville Ecallis 2 Dec. 1870 (buried in La Rue St. Pierre).
(10) Jean (Baptiste?) Jouanne, b. Ratieville 9 Oct. 1772, d. Pierreval 25 Nov. 1837,  
m. Fontaine le Bourg 26 Feb. 1797,
(11) Catherine Julie Joulin, b. Canon (Calvados) ca. 1768, d. Pierreval 6 Dec. 1837.
(12) Michel Valentin Piedefer,  
(13) Marguerite Legrand, both dead by April 1875.
(14) Pierre Brunel,  
(15) Marie Anne Daniel, both dead by 1850.
(16) Antoine Louvet, b. Pierreval ca. 1733, d. Pierreval 3 merridor an XI,  
m. (as his second wife)
(17) Marguerite Cave, d. before 17 June 1793.
(18) Jacques Marie Lepeuple, d. (Pierreval?) 24 Apr. 1790,  
m. (as her first husband)
(19) Marie Marthe Marguerite Portret, b. ca. 1751, d. Pierreval 3 Feb. 1816.
(20) Jean Jouanne,  
(21) Anne Page, both dead by 25 Nov. 1837.
(22) Jacques Jolin,  
(23) Marie Angers.
(32) Antoine Louvet,  
(33) Anne de la Barre.
(36) Jacques Marie Lepeuple, d. (Pierreval?) 21 March 1786.  

Note 50:   For a discussion of whether such a legitimation was valid for the succession to the Principality, see Joseph Valynseele, "Rainier III: est-il le souverain legitime de Monaco?", Recueil de l'Office Genealogique et Heraldique de Belgique, XIII (1964), pp. 191-223. If this legitimation was not valid for the succession to the Principality, then the heir, as of 1922, was the Duke of Urach (see supra). As France would probably not have allowed a German to become Sovereign Prince of Monaco, certainly not after the European War of 1914-1918 (now called World War I), the Duke of Urach and his family renounced their Monegasque rights of succession in favor of the next heir, Aynard, Marquis de Chabrillan (see supra). When Louis II died without legitimate issue in 1949, the Marquis tried to claim Monaco as the rightful heir, but died the next year. His daughter, Comtesse Caumont la Force, issued, 1955, a claim to the throne of Monaco (see Valynseele, p. 221). Her grandson, Olivier de Caumont la Force (see supra) is the legitimist Sovereign Prince of Monaco.

What Valynseele and other writers don't mention is the fact that Prince Louis had inherited a great number of titles apart from the Principality of Monaco. These titles include Duc d'Estouteville, Duc de Mazarin et de Meilleraye, Sire de Matignon, etc. In all, twenty-two listed in Burke's Royal Families of the World, vol. I [London: Burke's, 1977], p. 409. See also Monaco ses Princes ses Princesses [Paris: S.G.A.F., 1956], pp. 7-9, and Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Band 90 (Genealogisches Handbuch der Fürstlichen Häuser, Band XIII), 1987, S. 82. Is the legitimation of a bastard daughter (and not through the old familiar legitimatio per matrimonium subsequens sufficient for that daughter to inherit any of these titles? Is it sufficient for her to inherit the title of Duchesse de Estouteville but not the title of Duchesse de Mazarin? Or vice-versa? And the son of such a legitimated daughter?

As the renunciations of the Duke of Urach and his family in 1924 did not mention any other titles (see Valynseele, pp. 213-216), any titles for which legitimation of bastard issue is not sufficient to provide succession should not, on the death of Prince Louis II in 1949, have been inherited by Prince Rainier III, but should have passed to the Duke of Urach's oldest son, Prince Wilhelm von Urach, and then, in 1957, to Princess Elisabeth von Urach (see supra). Similarly, any position that the Sovereign Princes of Monaco (up to and including Florestan I) were heirs to (such as perhaps the Lusignan Kings of Cyprus, see supra) would, after 1949, fall to the Urachs. Note that both the title Prince Louis II granted to his (illegitimate and legitimated) daughter ("Duchesse de Valentinois") and the title Prince Rainier III granted to his sister and her descendants ("Baronne de Massy") are among these twenty-two titles.

Note 51:   For the patrilineal ancestry of Comte Pierre, see Jean, duc de Polignac, La Maison de Polignac [Le Puy: Jeanne d'Arc, 1975]. Comte Pierre appears on p. 146. See also Schwennicke, Band IX, Tafel 95. For the ancestry of Comte Pierre's mother, Dona Susana de la Torre y Mier, see Don Ricardo Ortega y Perez Gallardo, Historia Genealogica de las Familias mas Antiguas de Mexico, Tercera edicion, Segunda Parte, Tomo III [Mexico: Carranza, 1910], "Familia Mier Almendaro", pag. 21.

Note 52:   She was b. 1920 and m. (1) 1951, div. 1954, Alexandre-Athenase Noghes, b. 1916, m. (2) 1961, div. 1973, Jean Rey, b. 1914, and m. (3) 1983, John Gilpin, the ballet dancer, b. 1930, d. 1983 (less than two months after the marriage). Princesse Antoinette was created, shortly before her first marriage, Baronne de Massy. She has three children, all fathered by Noghes and born before the marriage, for whom see Baron Bernard Taubert-Natta (Princess Antoinette's son-in-law) and Georges Martin, Le Sang des Bade [La Ricamarie: Martin, 1982], p. 93. These children bear the title Baron/Baronne de Massy. Princesse Antoinette's son, Baron Christian de Massy, is (co-)author of Palace [New York: Atheneum, 1986].

Note 53:   For the ancestry of Princess Grace's mother, Margarethe Majer, see C. Frederick Kaufholz and others in Genealogie, 13. Jhg. (1964), S. 1-10; 14. Jhg. (1965), S. 454-463; 16. Jhg. (1967), S. 673-702 and 750; and 22. Jhg. (1973), S. 595-600. The ancestry of Princess Grace's father, John B. Kelly, is as follows (based on the unpublished work of John Insley Coddington and others):

           (1)        John Brendan Kelly, b. Philadelphia, Pa., 4 Oct. 1889, d. Philadelphia, Pa., 20 June 1960.
(2) John Henry Kelly, b. co. Mayo, Ireland, 29 July (1847 or 1848 or 1850 or 1852), d. Philadelphia, Pa., 24 Feb. 1917,  
m. Rutland, Vt., 20 June 1870,
(3) Mary Ann Costello, b. Ireland, 13 Oct. 1853, d. Philadelphia, Pa., 21 Sept. 1926.
(4) Bernard Kelly, b. 1804, d. 1889,  
m. (as her second husband)
(5) Honora McLaughlin, b. co. Mayo, Ireland, ca. 1821, d. Rutland, Vt., 1 May 1884.
(6) Walter Costello, b. Ireland, ca. 1828, d. Philadelphia, Pa., July 1910,  
m. Ireland, 1851,
(7) Ann Burke, b. ca. 1830, d. Philadelphia, Pa., 1892.
(10/26) Michael McLaughlin,  
(11/27) Mary Burke, b. ca. 1787, d. Rutland, Vt., 23 Nov. 1872.
(12) John Costello,  
(13) Bridget McLaughlin, b. 1810, d. after 1 Apr. 1886.
(22/54) David Burke,  
(23/55) Mary Rollins.
(26) and (27) see (10) and (11), above.

Note 54:   Litta, Este, tav. XIV.

Note 55:   Their son, Carlo Filiberto d'Este (1679-1752), was ancestor of, among others, the current Earl of Newburgh.

Note 56:   Litta, Gonzaga, tav. XIII.

Note 57:   Wilhelm Karl Prinz von Isenburg, Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Band II [Marburg: Stargardt, 1956], Tafel 135.

Note 58:   Isenburg, Band II, Tafel 125; Litta, Este, tav. XVII. His death was the extinction of the Italian branch of the d'Estes. The German branch (which still survives) included the British sovereigns from 1714 to 1901. See, for example, Litta, Este, tav. VI. See also Addington, vol. 2 [London, Skilton, 1971], p. 7, for their descendants.

Note 59:   Other descendants include Albert, Duke of Bavaria (the claimant to the throne of Bavaria and the Jacobite heir to the thrones of England and Scotland); Alfonso Carlos I (the last generally recognized Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain); the late Baroness Howard de Walden; and Prince Schönburg, a Tahitian.

Note 60:   Other descendants include the last Crown Princess of Saxony; Leopold Franz, the claimant to the throne of Tuscany; the Duc de Vendome (grandson and heir of the Count of Paris); and a grocer named Leopold Wölfling.

Note 61:   Other descendants of Roberto include Simeon II, the exiled King of the Bulgarians; Carlos Hugo, the present Carlist pretender; and Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg.

Note 62:   For this descent generally, see Daniel MacGregor, Brooke's Book [Chicago: MacGregor, 1986]. Pellina Grimaldi appears as K716 on page 14.

Note 63:   Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Band 8 (Genealogisches Handbuch der fürstlichen Häuser, Band III), 1955, S. 373.

Note 64:   Litta, Seconda Serie, vol. 2, Carafa, tav. XXIII; Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Band 33 (Genealogisches Handbuch der fürstlichen Häuser, Band VII), 1964, S. 466. He was a descendant of Pope Alexander VI.

Note 65:   He was a great-great-grandson of Giovanni Andrea Doria and Polissena Landi (see supra). See Battilana, Doria, tab. 31.

Note 66:   Schwennicke, Band II, Tafel 197. She was a daughter of Luigi Vittorio, principe di Savoja-Carignano, and a descendant of, among others, Henri IV, King of France (through both his wife and Gabrielle d'Estrees); Ferdinand and Isabella; Catherine and Cosimo de Medici; and Philipp I of Hesse.

Note 67:   A descendant of Niccolo Macchiavelli (1469-1527), the philosopher and politician.

Note 68:   Isenburg, Band IV [Marburg: Stargardt, 1957], Tafel 152.

Note 69:   She was born in Greenwich, Connecticut. For some of her ancestry, see Gary Boyd Roberts and William Addams Reitwiesner, American Ancestors and Cousins of the Princess of Wales [Baltimore: Genealogical, 1984], pp. 68-69. Her brother was grandfather of Glenn Close, the actress.

Note 70:   Their son, Alessandro, 5. principe di Civitella-Cesi (1911-1986), m. 1935, Infanta Beatriz (b. 1909), elder daughter of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.

Note 71:   See William X. Shields, Bigger than life [New York: Freundlich, 1986].

Note 72:   See supra for references.

Note 73:   Anselme, tome IV, page 501; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 9, col. 846.

Note 74:   Their daughter, Marguerite, married Louis de Forbin, Seigneur de Soliers (Anselme, tome VIII, page 304; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 8, col. 338). This is the line given by Tremblot, see supra.

Note 75:   Anselme, tome IV, page 501; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 9, col. 847.

Note 76:   Anselme, tome IV, page 502; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 9, col. 847.

Note 77:   Anselme, tome IV, page 502; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 9, col. 848.

Note 78:   Anselme, tome II, page 250; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18 (Paris: Schlesinger, 1873), col. 613; Louis Ventre Artefeuil, Histoire heroique et universelle de la noblesse de Provence [reprinted Marseille: Lafitte, 1970], tome II, p. 412.

Note 79:   Anselme, tome II, page 254; La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18, col. 621; Artefeuil, tome II, page 416.

Note 80:   The Marquis de Sade was personally aware of his descent from the Simiane family. See Ronald Hayman, De Sade [London: Constable, 1978], p. 16.

Note 81:   La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18, col. 33; Artefeuil, tome II, page 367.

Note 82:   Their youngest son, Jean-Baptiste de Sade, was Bishop of Cavallon, and died in 1707, leaving a reputation as a pious and learned prelate.

Note 83:   La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18, col. 33; Artefeuil, tome II, page 368.

Note 84:   La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18, col. 34; Artefeuil, tome II, page 368.

Note 85:   A younger son, Jacques Francois Paul Aldonce de Sade (1705-1778), wrote Memoires pour la vie de Francois Petrarque [three volumes, Amsterdam (sic): Arskee & Merkus, 1764-1767], in which he claims that the "Laura" to whom Petrarch addressed his lyric poetry was a member of the de Sade family. This claim is accepted by Morris Bishop, Petrarch and his world [Bloomington: Indiana, 1963], pp. 62-70.

Note 86:   La Chesnaye-Desbois, tome 18, col. 34; Artefeuil, tome II, page 369.

Note 87:   Most of the biographers of the Marquis de Sade mangle the relationship between de Sade's mother, the Comtesse de Sade (nee de Maille), and the family of the Princes de Conde. The Comtesse was a Lady-in-Waiting to the Princesse de Conde (which is why de Sade was born in the Conde's mansion), but the relationship was not with the Princesse (who had been born a Princess of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg), but with the (late) Prince de Conde (d. 1740). The relationship was not a very close one: The Prince's great-grandmother had been a de Maille. The Comtesse de Sade was, in fact, a twelfth cousin twice removed of the Prince de Conde.

The Comtesse de Sade's patrilineal great-grandparents were Donatien I de Maille, Marquis de Kerman, and Mauricette de Ploeuc. Mauricette's sister, Marie, was the wife of Guillaume de Penancoët, Seigneur de Kerouaille, and mother of both the Duchess of Portsmouth and the Countess of Pembroke. As a result, the Marquis de Sade was a first cousin thrice removed of one of the mistresses of King Charles II, and the following persons (great-grandchildren of the Duchess of Portsmouth) are among the fourth cousins of the Marquis de Sade:

         Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond
         Emilia Mary Lennox, Duchess of Leinster
         Charlotte Jane Windsor, Marchioness of Bute
         Elizabeth Keppel, Marchioness of Tavistock
         Augustus Berkeley, 4th Earl of Berkeley
         George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle
         George Fermor, 2nd Earl of Pomfret
         Lady Georgina Lennox, Baroness Holland
         Lady Sarah Lennox (with whom the young King George III was infatuated)

Note 88:   Within about 20 years of the death of the Marquis. See Paul Robert, Dictionnaire Alphabetique et Analogique de la Langue Francaise, tome VIII [Paris: Le Robert, 1985], pp. 534-535. The words probably entered the English language through various translations of Richard, Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis.

The biographies of the Marquis de Sade usually say more about the authors than about the Marquis. Heyman's work (see supra) is one of the better biographies.

Above is the text of a monograph I published in 1995, with only minor corrections. Since then, a number of events have occurred, not least of which has been the invention of the World Wide Web, so I'm noting below some of the events which affect the contents of this monograph.

For example, Rainier III d. 2005 and was succeeded as Sovereign Prince of Monaco by his son Albert II, b. 1958.

More complete lists of the ancestors of Mlle Gibert (Note 44) and Mme Delmaet (Note 49) can be found in the "roglo" genealogical database at

For Note 50, on the inheritance of titles, see for a discussion of the subsidiary titles of the Monegasque princes, and for an explanation of the inheritance of French noble titles in general.

Fürstin Elisabeth von Urach (see notes 45 and 50) died unmarried in Stuttgart on 12 Novenber 1999. Patrick Guinness is now the heir of Florestine Grimaldi de Monaco.

Comte Olivier de Caumont la Force (see notes 41 and 50) died without issue in Paris on 12 April 2003. His younger brother Xavier (b. 1963) is now the legitimist Sovereign Prince of Monaco.

William Addams Reitwiesner